͹ҧ (Simple Harmonic Motion)

͹ҧ
ѵ͹Ѻ ѡѭѡɳ SHM. ҧͧ͹ ͹ͧѵ١١ԴѺʻԧҺ ѵ͹çʻԧѵ ֡͹ҡٻ 1
ٻ 1a ˹ x = 0 ˹ͧԧ ˹ʻԧ ˹ʻԧçҡѵ ٻ 1a ѵ m ١ԴѺʻԧ ҧç´ҹ ˹ԧ״͡ҡҧ A ʻԧ͡ç֧ѵ m Ѻ˹ x = 0 ¡çʻԧѵç֧Ѻ (Restoring force) F ç֧Ѻ
F = -kx -----(1)
ç֧Ѻͧź ҧͧǡͧçѺǡͧѴ x ѡçѹ k Ԩͧʻԧ (spring constant) ٻ 1 ˹ҧǡ ѧٻ 1a ˹ x = A ֧ǡ ҧͧç֧Ѻź ͧҡѵ͹ x = A ͧѵ֧ٹ
ѵ͹çͧʻԧ ѵ͹ҧ ٻ 1b ѵҹ˹ x = 0 ˹˹ çʻԧѵٹ ѵͧѵҡش ͧҡ ź ͧҡç´ҹ ʻԧ͡çҡѵ ѧ˹ x = 0 ѵ֧öѡҾ͹ 1 ͧǵѹ ѵ֧ѧö͹ҧ
ѵ͹ҧ ѵѡʻԧ˴ҡ ѧʻԧ͡ç֧Ѻѵ ͧѺա ٻ 1 C ʴ֧ѵ͹ҧҡش ͧѵٹͧç֧Ѻҡ ǡ ǡͧѴͧѵҡ Ҵ A ѧ˹ͧѵ֧ x = -A ѧࡵ ҴͧѴҡشͧѵҧѹ a ͧҡٻ 1c çҡѵ§ç çҡʻԧ ҧ ѵ֧͹ѺҧԷͧç
ٻ 1

ٻ 1d ѵѺ˹ͧʻԧա˹ ǡѺٻ 1b ѵǡ ҧѵ֧״ʻԧ͡ ״ҡش֧˹ x = A ѧʴٻ 1 e ʶҹǡѺٻ 1a ѧ͹ͧѵ֧Ѻѡɳ ҡ 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1a ҧ ѵ͹Ѻͧ ֧͹Ẻ SHM.

֧֡ ҡ (1) F = -kx ѵ͹Ẻ SHM ͡ҡ͹Ѻ ç֧ѺѵѧüѹçѺѴͧѵա

֡͹Ẻ SHM ͧ˹ҳҧ ѧ
Ѵ (dis placement) ҧѵ͹Ѻҡش
ٴ (amplitude) ҧҡشѵö͹ Ѻҡشѹ ҨԨóٴ Ѵҡشͧ
Һ (period) ѵ 1 ͺ (ҡٻ 1a ֧ 1e
(frequency) ӹǹͺѵ ͹ 1 Թҷ ҡ f T Һ
T =

ѧҹͧѵ͹Ẻ SHM.

״˴ʻԧ ͧç͡ʻԧԴҹ ״˴ͧʻԧ ѧҹѡ ͧʻԧ ҡͧѧҹѡҹѡͧѵ ش ҹ͹ѵҡشҧԧѧش" F çʻԧʻԧ״ (˴) ҧ x ҡ˹
ҹʻԧ = Fx
˹˹ҧԧ
ѧҹѡͧʻԧ˹ x = Fx
״˴ͧʻԧ çʻԧ 鹡Ѻҧ ѧç F ֧ç ҧçʻԧ˹ x = 0 x
ѧ ѧҹѡͧʻԧ˹ x
ͧҡ çʻԧѵç͹ѡ ѧѧҹ (total energy) ͧѵ͹Էͧçʻԧ֧ E ѧҹ ˹ x ѵ v (ѧʴٻ 2d)
ٻ 2

ٻ 2 ʴ͹ͧѵ m ١ԴѺʻԧ͹Һç´ҹ ǡѺٻ 1 ٻ a ѵ˹ x = A ٴͧ͹ ˹ ѵٹ ֧ѧҹѡҡش
ٻ b ѵ˹ Ѵ x ٹ ѵҡش ˹֧ѧҹѡٹ ѧҹŹҡش v0 ѵ˹
ٻ c ѵ˹ x = - A ٴѹ͹Ѻٻ a ͧѵٹ ѵ֧ѧҹŹٹ ѧҹѡҡش
ٻ d ˹ͧѵ x ѵ v ѧ͸Ժ ֧

: ³ä , Ե¹ 2 Ѻ 3.

 

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