֡͹ҤŰҹ
Democritus ѡѪ˭ͧ Abdera ի 2460 ͹ѵԹԺҵʹ Եͧͧʺ ѧ͹ ֡ԴѧԵ Ӥѭҡѧ ١ҧ
ѧҡ֡Դͺҹ Democritus ҹ ءԴѡ Сͺ͹Ҥش¡ е (atom) ѹա¡ еͧѧͧش ١
ѹԴ ö¡еա ѹҹ 2,000
з E.Rutherford ͧԧ͹Ҥſ (alpha) ҹͧҧ ػ еСͺǹҧ ¡ (nucleus) 硵͹ (electron) ͺ šеԧ ¡ !
ԷʵѲҡ ͧеѧСͺ͹Ҥŧա õ͹(proton) Шǡǵ͹(neutron) ҧ Шǡź
ѧҡǵ͹ҹ 40 ǹҡԴõ͹ǵ͹͹Ҥ شͧ .. 2503 ͧ J.Friedman , H. Kendall R. Taylor ͧ͹Ҥ (accelerator) ԧ硵͹ѧҹ٧õ͹ ͧͧ ʴ֡ǧաдѺ˹ õ͹ѧСͺ͹Ҥŧա (quark)
Ѩغѹѡԡ ҵ 6 Դ Դ up, down, strange, charm, top bottom ͤ 6 Դ ѹ Դ top 2 ѺԴ down 1 ѹ õ͹ҡԴ top 1 Դ down 2 ͹Ҥǵ͹ ͹Ҥ ҡٻҧ ѹ
͹ҤШ ѹѹ çԴعçѹ çԴҧҡçԴ ͤѹç֧ٴ ҡ ˵ ˵Һءѹѡԡ ֧ö¡͡͹Ҥ
ѧʹ 37 ҹѡԡ ֧ҧѴѧ ͹ҤŰҹ (elementary particle) شѹ¡ѹա
ͧɮ ѡԡɮ Standard Model ͸Ժ»ҡóҧ ҧҧءٻɮѧҾó ɮѧöͺ ˵õ͹֧˹ѡ硵͹ ˵͹Ҥͧ Ҵҧѹ ֧Шѹ
ͺ " " Standard Model ҹ ͹Ҥա˹ Higgs ͹ҤѨغѹѧ ѡغѵ 15,000 ҹ͹ ͹Ҥҡ Higgs ͹ҤԴ ˹ͧ͹Ҥҧ ءԴѡ
ѧ Higgs ѧѷɮ Standard Model ֧ѧ֧ 100% ͹Ҥ Higgs ѡԡͧ͹Ҥ ҧ Large Electron Position Collider(LEP) ػóѡɳٻҧⴹѷ ͺǧ 25 ٹҧͧ 4 ˹ѡ 80,000 ѹ 6,000 ) Ҥ 2.5 ҹҷ ͧ͹Ҥ LEP ֧ػóԷʵҴ شͧš͹Ҥѧ١ѧҧ ١ ͡ҡ ѧػóش ١ѧԹдѺ֡ 100 dzҹͧ Geneva ԵŹ
ѡԡ 4,000 ҡš LEP ͹Ҥ硵͹Ե͹ (͹Ҥ硵͹ ШԴçѹ) з 99.999996% ͧʧ ҡѧѺ͹ҤͧԴѹ
͹Ե͹ѧҹ٧зѹ ѧҹҧǹ١¹͹Ҥ E = mc2 ͧ͹䵹 ѧѹ ҧ͹Ҥͧ͹ҤԴҡ º͹öµ 2 ѹ ö͹ ѹ ѡҹ¹ ö Դԧ͡
ѡԡҴѧ LEP Ҵ˭ ͧöҧ͹Ҥ Higgs ֧ͧ Higgs Դ§ 0.000,000,000,000,012 Թҷ ѡԡؤѨغѹöѹ ҡ Higgs ֧º͹Ѻ ͹ѡ˹͹ҡ ҧ 1,000 ҹ
ͧԧ硵͹Ե͹ ǧͧҹ ˵óҴ ѡԡҴѹԴ 18 Standard Model ͸Ժ ˵óҴػóǨѺ͹Ҥͧ˹ աͧԴѹ
ͺػó˹ ͧҹͧ Standard Model ͧ
ͧ .. 2538 ѡԡ˵óҴ 2 3 Դͧ ûǹҧʶԵͧ˵ó ׺ͧҡҹͧͧͧ ͧѡͧ ء֧Ҵѧ ҡͧѧҹ٧ա ˵óԴ "" ""
ѧҹͧ硵͹˵óҴ ͧҴɮʹѺʹع ѡ֧ͧԴ ɮ Standard Model ͧҧ ǹѡɮѧѺͧػóǨѺա 3 ͧͧ LEP ҹ
͡ѹѧ䧤Ѻ
˹ҧصѴ ѡԡͧͧ ѧ͹Ҥ LEP Թͧա ˵ó 18 ˵óҨ͹ ʹͧ͹˭ Titanic

: .طȹ ¡ҹ
ʶҺѹ͹Էʵ෤ (Ƿ.)

 

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