ʶҺѹҪѯ
ѹ


 
 
 

  سѵԢͧ
ҡ ҹ ʹ ѧǹ 俿Ǵ ͹ ʹ ö Ҿ ù俿 Ǵ Ҿ (normal state) ʹ ·ش ö Ҿù俿 Ǵ ʹ ¡ ʹԡĵ (Critical magnetic field) ʹԡĵ Т Ѻس ͷ سԡĵ ʹԡĵ ٹ Ѻ سԵӡ سԡĵ ʹԡĵԨ ҡ

Hc = H0 [1-(T/Tc)2]
Hc Ho ᷹ Ҥ ʹԡĵ سԵӡ سԡĵ з س 0 k ӴѺ T Tc ᷹ س ӡ سԡĵ سԡĵ ӴѺ ˵ ͧ ʹԡĵ ֧١ 繵 ӡѴ 俿 żҹ ǹ俿Ǵ 俿 ٧ش żҹ ǹ俿Ǵ еͧ Դ ʹ ҡѺ ʹԡĵ سԹ

()
ٻѹ ҧ ʹԡĵ Ѻس


()

ҧ ʹԡĵ س 0 k ͧҵ ǹ俿Ǵ
ҡٻ դ ʹ س ʹͧ ѹ ἹҾ (phase diagram) ش P й ѧҾ 繵ǹ俿 Ǵ ͧ Ҿ ö ʹ س Ҩͧ ҧ ѹ
ǧǹ
Ԩó ٻǧǹ ҧʹ Ҥ˹蹿ѡ B ¹ŧ 繼Դ 俿 I ǹ ǧǹ ͧ Ź (lenz's law)

-A(dB/dt) = RI + L(dI/dt)

R = Ҥҹҹͧǧǹ
L = ˹ǹ (inductance)ͧǧǹ
A = 鹷˹ҵѴͧǧǹ
t =

ҡ ѧ繨ԧ 㹡óշ ʹ ¹͡ ¹

0 = RI + L(dI/dt)

ӵͺ

I = I0 exp(-Rt/L) I0 = 俿

ҡ 俿 ǹ ǧǹ ŴŧẺ ͡๹ ǧǹ Ҿù俿 Ǵ Ҥҹҹ ٹ ¹

I = I0

ҡù 俿 ǹ ǧǹФ ʹ ¡ 俿ҹ 俿ҤҾ (persistent current) ͧ 俿 ǧǹ СԴ ʹ硢 觿ѡ Դ դҡѺ LI 㹡ó ʹ ¹͡ ѡ ҹ ǧǹ

f = AB + LI

Կù͵ ºѺҨ

df/dt = A(dB/dt)+ L(dl/dt)



df/dt = -RI

ǧǹҾù俿Ǵ è¹

df/dt = 0

蹤 f = Ҥ



ԷԾ
..1933 (W. meissner) હŴ (R. ochsenfeld) 鷴ͧǡѺҾù俿Ǵ ʹ硾 ǹҾԨ ʹ硼ҹ Ҿù俿 Ǵмѡʹ͡仨֧¡ҡó ԷԾ



ٻš÷ͧͧ


ҡ÷ͧͧ ʴ 㹵ǹ俿Ǵʹٹ 繤سѵԢͧ Diamagnetic ҡسѵԷҧ

B = U0 (H + M)

M = x H

Ur = 1 + x

B = ˹蹿ѡ

H = ʹ

M = Ҿ (magnetizition)

X = Ҥ͹ (susceptibility)

U0 Ur = Ҥҹ (permeability) ͧ٭ҡФҤҹѷ Ѻ ǹ俿Ǵ ¹

M = - H

X = - 1

mr = 0
ҡ÷ ǹ俿Ǵ ʴӹҨ ͧ ֧ǹ俿ǴդسѵԷҧ 俿- ᵡҧ仨ҡ ǹӸ ;Ԩó ǹӸ ǧǹ ǹ俿Ǵ Ҵҡѹ ҧ ʹ ͹ ѹ شҹ ʹ ǧǹ ǹ俿Ǵ ҧ ʹ ͧ Դҡ 俿˹ǹ ǹǧǹ Ѻǧǹ Ҩҡ ʹ





     
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˹ѧ硷͹ԡ

 

 

˹ѧ硷͹ԡԡ 1 ˹ѧͿԡ 1 Ҥʵ
˹ѧͿԡ 1  Ҥ ͧ ͹Ф ˹ѧ硷͹ԡԡ 2

 

  ¹͹ԡ 1  ҹҧԹ

1. Ѵ 2. ǡ
3.  ͹Ẻ˹Ե 4.  ͹躹йҺ
5.  ͹ͧǵѹ 6. ûء졮͹ͧǵѹ
7.  ҹоѧҹ  8.  ô
9.  ع   10.  Ţͧѵ
11. ͹ẺҺ 12. ״
13. ʵͧ   14. ҳ͹  䡡ö͹͹
15. ͷ˹ͧͧ䴹ԡ  16. سѵԧšŢͧ
17.  18. Ф§

  ¹͹ԡ 2  ҹҧԹ  

1. 俿ʶԵ 2.  ʹ俿
3. ҧͧ¿  4.  纻ШСõ͵ǵҹҹ 
5. ѡ俿 6. 俿 
7. ʹ  8.˹ǹ
9. 俿ҡѺ  10. ҹ 
11. ʹ俿ҡ 

12. ʧСͧ

13. ɮѷҾ 14. ʵ͹
15. çҧͧе 16.  

  ¹͹ԡ  ҹҧԹ

1. ʵ ( kinematic)

   2. žʵ (kinetics) 

3. ҹ 4. ԡ §
5.  ͧšѺ͹ 6.俿ʶԵѺ俿 
7. 俿  8.    俿ҡѺʧ
9.  ɮѷҾ е    

 

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ش