ʶҺѹҪѯ
ѹ


 
 
 

  Ҿ俿Ǵ
ǹ俿· ա٭ ѧҹ俿 ٻ͹ 俿 ҹ ѹͧҨҡǹ俿ҹդҹҹ俿㹵 Ѻ ǹ俿Ǵ Դ٭¾ѧҹ俿 դҹҹ俿㹵ǹͧ ҡسѵԹͧǹ俿Ǵ ֧١ ҹ ҧҧҧ Ѻػó ͧ 俿٧ Ҿ ù俿Ǵ 㹻 .. 1911 ͹ (L. Onnes) ѧҡ Ҥҹҹ俿 ͧͷ Ŵŧٹҧ ѹշѹ㴷س 4.2 K ǹ ѧ Ҥҹҹ 俿 ѧٹ سԵӡ 4.2K ͹ ֧ С سԵӡ 4.2 K ¡Ҿ Ҿù俿Ǵ

š÷ͧͧ͹
ѧҡä鹾ͧ͹ ա֡÷繵ǹ俿Ǵա֧ Ѩغѹ ǹ俿Ǵ繸ҵ 24 ҵ ͡ûСͺ(alloy) õǹ俿ǴդسԡĵԷᵡҧѹ

ҧ ʴسԡĵ㹵ҧҵط繵ǹ俿Ǵ

ҵ (Element) Tc in K
Tc Tc
Aluminium 1.19 Cadmium 0.56
Gallium-Alpha 1.09 Gallium-Beta 6.20
Gallium-Gramma 7.62 Indium 3.40
iridium 0.14 Lanthanum-Alpha 4.90
Lanthanum-beta 6.06 Lead 7.19
Mercury-Alpha 4.15 Mercury-Beta 3.94
Molydanum 0.92 Niobium 0.65
Osmium 9.26 Protactinium 1.40
Rhenium 1.69 Ruthenium 0.49
Tantalum 4.48 Tachnetium 8.22
Thallium 2.39 Thorium 1.36
Tin 3.72 Titanium 0.39
Tungsten 0.01 Uranium-Alpha 0.68
Uranium-Beta 1.80 Vanadium 5.30
Zinc 0.87 Zirconium 0.54


ҧ ʴسԷԴǹǴ ºѺҤѹ

Element Tc in k pressure
Bismuth II 3.916 25,000 atm
Bismuth II 3.90 25,200 atm
Bismuth II 3.86 25,800 atm
Bismuth II 7.25 27,000-28,400 atm
Caesium 1.7 50 Kbr
Germanium 4.85-5.4 120 Kbr
Selenium II 6.75-6.95 130 Kbr
Silicon 7.9 120-130 Kbr
Tellurium 3.3 56,000 atm
Thallium (FCC) 1.45 35 Kbr
Thaiiium (HCC) 1.95 35 Kbr

ǡѺԴҾù俿Ǵ
1. Ҿ 俿Ǵ лҡ 㹸ҵ 2 ˭
- ҵ ǵ (transition element) - 㹸ҵ IIB , IIIA , IVA
2. Ҿ ù俿Ǵ ҡ
- (ferromagnetic) , - ͹ (antiferromagnetic)
- éǹ , á觵ǹ , ҵ IA , IIA ҵҡ(rare earth element)
3. Ҿ ù俿Ǵ Դ 硵͹ ǧ͡ش ͧе ҧ 2.8 ҹ


ٻʴ ¹ŧ سѵ ҧ俿 Ф͹ ͧǹ俿Ǵ










ٻʴ ѹâͧ سԡĵ Ѻӹǹ 硵͹ ǧ͡ش ǹǴ ١繵ŧ ӡس ԡĵԢͧѹ ͡ҡ դسѵ ҧ ҹҹ 俿¹ ѧ سѵ ҧ ͹ (specific heat capacity) ԷԾ ҧ俿 ͹ (thermoelectric effect) Ҿ ͹ (thermal conductivity) ¹ŧ 仴 ѧٻ

     
§ҹ Ԫ ʴʵ   

 

˹ѧ硷͹ԡ

 

 

˹ѧ硷͹ԡԡ 1 ˹ѧͿԡ 1 Ҥʵ
˹ѧͿԡ 1  Ҥ ͧ ͹Ф ˹ѧ硷͹ԡԡ 2

 

  ¹͹ԡ 1  ҹҧԹ

1. Ѵ 2. ǡ
3.  ͹Ẻ˹Ե 4.  ͹躹йҺ
5.  ͹ͧǵѹ 6. ûء졮͹ͧǵѹ
7.  ҹоѧҹ  8.  ô
9.  ع   10.  Ţͧѵ
11. ͹ẺҺ 12. ״
13. ʵͧ   14. ҳ͹  䡡ö͹͹
15. ͷ˹ͧͧ䴹ԡ  16. سѵԧšŢͧ
17.  18. Ф§

  ¹͹ԡ 2  ҹҧԹ  

1. 俿ʶԵ 2.  ʹ俿
3. ҧͧ¿  4.  纻ШСõ͵ǵҹҹ 
5. ѡ俿 6. 俿 
7. ʹ  8.˹ǹ
9. 俿ҡѺ  10. ҹ 
11. ʹ俿ҡ 

12. ʧСͧ

13. ɮѷҾ 14. ʵ͹
15. çҧͧе 16.  

  ¹͹ԡ  ҹҧԹ

1. ʵ ( kinematic)

   2. žʵ (kinetics) 

3. ҹ 4. ԡ §
5.  ͧšѺ͹ 6.俿ʶԵѺ俿 
7. 俿  8.    俿ҡѺʧ
9.  ɮѷҾ е    

 

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